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京都市動物園における研究成果(2019年度)

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2019年度の成果発表をまとめました。(2019年11月3日更新)

論文

国内外学術誌に論文を発表しました。

岡 桃子山梨 裕美岡部 光太松永 雅之平田 聡, 飼育下トラにおける環境エンリッチメントの有効性及び来園者による影響の検証, 動物の行動と管理学会誌, 2019, 55 巻, 3 号, p. 107-116, 公開日 2019/11/01, Online ISSN 2435-0397https://doi.org/10.20652/jabm.55.3_107

飼育下の大型ネコ科動物で問題とされている常同歩行の発現には環境エンリッチメント(以下エンリッチメント)の有無や来園者の影響など複数の要因が絡んでいると考えられるが、複合的な検討は行われていない。そこで本研究ではエンリッチメントの有効性及び来園者数と気温がトラの行動に与える影響について検証した。京都市動物園で飼育されているアムールトラ3 頭を対象とし、 3 分毎の瞬間サンプリングを用いて行動を記録した。放飼場内に設置するエンリッチメントの種類が多いと、トラの常同歩行頻度は有意に減少し(P < 0.05)、エンリッチメントの利用頻度が有意に増加した(P < 0.01)。複数のエンリッチメントの設置はトラの常同歩行の抑制に効果的であり、探索行動や捕食行動等多様な行動を引き出す上で有用であることが示唆された。また来園者の存在によって、トラの休息頻度が増加、エンリッチメントの利用頻度が低下する可能性があると考えられた。

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「動物園のキリンにおける睡眠関連行動:基本的な特徴と季節と出産による影響」

Takagi, N, Saito, M, Ito, H, Tanaka, M, Yamanashi, Y. Sleep‐related behaviors in zoo‐housed giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): Basic characteristics and effects of season and parturition. Zoo Biology.2019; 38: 490– 497. https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21511

英文要旨

Despite increasing interest in the behavior of zoo animals, studies of nocturnal behavior of zoo animals are limited. In this study, we investigated the relationship between parturition, season, and the sleep‐related behaviors in captive reticulated giraffes to better understand the nocturnal life in giraffes. The subjects were two adult reticulated giraffes living in Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. Observations were made via an infrared camera that was mounted in the indoor enclosure between June 2007 and August 2009. We analyzed video clips that were recorded between 16:30 and 09:00 the next morning, over a total of 199 days. Sleep‐related behaviors were classified into two categories based on the posture of the giraffes; recumbent posture and paradoxical sleep. We also recorded the laterality of recumbent posture, which was coded based on the direction of the legs against the torso (right or left). Seasonal differences in sleep behaviors between summer and winter were observed in both individuals. They tended to start to lie down earlier in the winter than in the summer. Parturition also affected the behaviors as both individuals decreased the behaviors before and after the parturition of the female. Additionally, the female lay on her left side less frequently than her right when resuming a recumbent posture in the pre‐parturition period, while such laterality was not observed in the baseline and post‐parturition period. These results suggested that season and parturition are important factors for determining the sleep‐related behaviors in giraffes. Further studies are needed to understand how these changes in sleep affect other welfare parameters.

2019年8月8日公開

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山梨 裕美・櫻庭 陽子 (2019) 大型類人猿の社会性に配慮した飼育管理:実践と研究の視点から.  動物心理学研究 (早期公開) https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/janip/advpub/0/advpub_69.1.8
(英文要旨)
With the accumulation of knowledge regarding sociality of animals, social enrichment is regarded as one of the most important part of captive animal care. Although the basic knowledge has been accumulated, sociality involves complex issues. Moreover, practical methodologies for social management remain controversial. In this paper, we overview the current studies and practices of social management on four great ape species (chimpanzees, western lowland gorillas, and Bornean and Sumatran orangutans) housed in Japanese zoos to advance the sociality discussion. We first describe the fundamentals of sociality in animals. Then we explore important topics of sociality, including social relationships in captivity, all male group formation in chimpanzees and gorillas, group living in orangutans, and welfare of disabled and geriatric individuals. Although the number of sociality studies has recently increased, to maximize the positive effects of captive social living, more detailed understanding of the effects of social factors on animals using scientific methodologies is important.

(2019年7月18日公開)

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「ツシマヤマネコの遺伝的多様性は,大陸のアムールヤマネコと比較して,極端に低いことが示された:保全への示唆として。」
Hideyuki Ito and Miho Inoue-Murayama. 2019. The Tsushima leopard cat exhibits extremely low genetic diversity compared with the Korean Amur leopard cat: Implications for conservation. PeerJ, 7297. https://peerj.com/articles/7297.pdf

(英文要旨)
We examined genetic diversity of the wild Tsushima leopard cata regional population of the Amur leopard catusing microsatellite markers. In addition, we compared genetic diversity of the Tsushima leopard cat with that of the Korean population of Amur leopard cat. Although bias should be considered when applying cross-species amplification, the Tsushima leopard cat showed a lower index of molecular genetic diversity than did the Korean population. These results were consistent with those obtained using other genetic markers, such as mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome sequences. This low genetic diversity of the wild Tsushima leopard cat may be derived from the founding population. Furthermore, our results suggest that the captive populations held in Japanese zoos may show extremely low genetic diversity, leading to difficulties in genetic management of the Tsushima leopard cat. Moreover, the two regional populations were clearly separated using these marker sets. In the present study, we demonstrated that the genetic diversity of the Tsushima leopard cat is extremely low compared with that of the continental regional population. Importantly, the Japanese captive population for ex situ conservation was derived from a founding population with extremely low genetic diversity; hence, we assume that both the captive and wild populations showed extremely low genetic diversities. Our findings emphasize the need to develop carefully considered management strategies for genetic conservation.
(2019年7月15日公開)

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山梨 裕美, (2019) チンパンジーの社会関係と長期的なストレス:研究領域としての動物福祉., 霊長類研究, 35: 23-32. https://doi.org/10.2354/psj.35.006
(英文要旨)
Both general and academic attention toward animal welfare has been increasing and the importance of scientific investigation into welfare states of captive animals is being recognized. One of the big questions in scientific studies of animal welfare is how we can assess animal welfare in an objective manner, and this is an intensively debated topic. In this paper, I reviewed the studies on captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in order to discuss the methodologies used to assess welfare states and introduce studies that have investigated how social environments affect chimpanzee welfare by combining behavioral and hair cortisol (HC) measurements. Recently, cortisol accumulated in the hair of animals has been considered as an indicator of the long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. From a welfare perspective, long-term stress is more problematic than acute stress as it is challenging for animals to experience distress over a long period and long-term activation of the HPA axis can result in overall health deterioration. A series of studies on captive chimpanzees show that HC is useful for monitoring the long-term stress levels in captive chimpanzees. Furthermore, using the novel measure of long-term stress, I found that the stress level of male chimpanzees is affected by social variables and that male chimpanzees use social play as a means to reduce social tension. Although scientific investigation of animal welfare is still not a prevalent practice in Japan, it is a promising area of study both for improving animal welfare and deepening our understanding about animals.

(2019年7月12日公開)

国際会議等での発表

2019.06.22~26 国際エンリッチメント会議を京都大学および京都市動物園で開催しました!詳しくはHPへ。
ICEE14_logo2_s
 

1. Kyoko Kuroda, Hiroki Yoneda, Mitsunori Nagao, Kanae Shimada, Yusuke Aramaki, Ryota Seo, Yoko Sakuraba, Yumi Yamanashi, Masayuki Tanaka (2019) Introduction of New Elephants to a Former Solitary Captive Elephant: The Process of Forming Social Relationships. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

2. Shigeru Ninomiya Nana Kojima, Kie Higashi, Miyu Fujimura, Yumi Yamanashi, Ayumi Kawamura3, Hiroki Fukuizumi (2018) Environmental Enrichment for Self-Grooming in Farm and Zoo Animals. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

3. Mitsunori Nagao (2019) Ex-Situ Conservation of the Tsushima Leopard Cat by the Cooperation with JAZA and MOE. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

4. Kota Okabe, Masayuki Matsunaga, Ryuichiro Kado, Sachiko Seko, Kazuhiko Nakano, Kaname Okahashi, Katsuji Uetake (2019) Use of Cardboard Boxes as Environmental Enrichment for Captive Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

5. Saki Yasui, Fumiko Nakahara, Naoko Takagi (2019) Environmental Enrichment and Birth Support for Western Gorillas at the Kyoto City Zoo. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

6. Yumi Yamanashi, Yoko Sakuraba, Fumio Itoh, Yasunori Takenaka, Ryuichiro Kado (2019) Filling the Gap: Animal Welfare Risk Assessment and Its Application to Enhance the Quality of Life of Zoo Animals. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

7. Nobuhiro Yamada, Hideko Takeshita, Junichi Takashio, Yoko Sakuraba, Ichiro Takahashi, Fumito Kawakami, Misato Hayashi, Masaki Tomonaga (2019) Developmental Support of Chimpanzee with Cerebral Palsy. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

8. Masato Yayota, Yukari Kashima1, Yuma Tsuchiya, Yusuke Aramaki, Ryuichiro Kado, Hideyuki Ito (2019) Feeding Enrichment Using an Automatic Feeder for Captive Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus). The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

9. Shiori Mitsuya, Saika Yamazaki, Tadatoshi Ogura, Shintaro Hagiwara, Naoko Suda-Hashimoto, Kota Okabe, Yu Nakayama, Shinichi Kioka, Kazuyuki Ban, Yudai Arai, Yuki Ishida, Yumi Yamanashi, Yuki Taguchi, Nao Koyama (2019) Introduction of Activities by SHAPE-Japan. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

10. Yusuke Aramaki, Nobuaki Iwahasi, Saki Yasui (2019) Effects of Three Types of Environmental Enrichment on the Behaviors of Captive Brazilian Tapirs. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

11. Masayuki Tanaka, Yoko Sakuraba (2019) Ten Years of Long-lasting Cognitive Enrichment for Zoo Primates: Cultural Transmission in Kyoto City Zoo. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

12. Yoko Sakuraba, Nobuhiro Yamada, Ichiro Takahashi, Fumito Kawakami, Jun'ichi Takashio, Hideko Takeshita, Misato Hayashi, Masaki Tomonaga (2019) Evaluating of Physical State on a Female Chimpanzee with Cerebral Palsy: A Case Study. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

13. Haruna Bando, Yumi Yamanashi, Naoko Takagi, Yoko Sakuraba (2019) Environmental Enrichment Projects for Geriatric Rhesus Macaques with Zoo Visitors. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

14. Kanae Shimada, Aoi Takahashi, Fumiko Nakahara, Yumi Yamanashi (2019) Assessing the Effect of Visitor Contact on Stress Levels in Guinea Pigs by Measuring Salivary Cortisol Levels. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

15. Kei Nemoto, Yumi Yamanashi, Koshiro Watanuki, Akinori Dosyo, Josue Alejanro Pastrana
(2019) Improving Living Environment of Lesser Slow Loris. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

16. Fumihiro Kano, Yutaro Sato, Yumi Yamanashi (2019) The KYOTO STEAM – International Arts × Science Festival project: Art × Science IN Kyoto City Zoo What do chimpanzees feel in arts? The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

17. Yuko Ikkatai, André Gonçalves, Josue Alejandro Pastrana, Yumi Yamanashi (2019) Ask Participants: Perception of Animal Death. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (June 22-26, Kyoto, Japan).

国内学会等での発表

田中正之・櫻庭陽子・吉田信明 (2019) 京都市動物園チンパンジー認知エンリッチメント10年間の記録. 第35回日本霊長類学会大会(7月12-14日,熊本市)
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